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IMRAD structure

This page is about how to build up your assignment based on the IMRAD structure.

IMRAD is the most common format for structuring scientific articles. The acronym stands for Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion. In some versions, the A can also stand for Analysis.

The IMRAD format is used to write assignments on a number of natural science degree programmes. There may also be other requirements for the structure of your assignment, so check the academic regulations and ask your teacher before using the IMRAD structure for an assignment.


  • Introduction
    • Includes a problem statement, and possibly formulates a hypothesis.
    • Clearly describes a purpose by explaining why it is important to answer the research question(s)/test the hypothesis.
    • Places the problem statement/hypothesis in a broader context by including relevant background information and references to existing literature. 
  • Method
    • The procedure is explained in detail, and reasons for selecting a particular procedure are stated.
    • Illustrations are used where appropriate, and they are carefully executed and presented in the text.
  •  Results/analysis
    • Key findings/results are clearly described and reported correctly, readably, and without errors or omissions.
  • Discussion
    • Conclusions are presented in a way that shows their logical connection with data.
    • Conclusions are related to the problem statement/hypothesis and the introduction.
    • Implications and potential problems are thoroughly discussed.

See an example of how to use the IMRAD structure in a scientific article.


The information about formalities is general guidelines. They do not replace the provisions in your academic regulations, your lecturers ' guidance or information on your course's website. First, please contact the above-mentioned locations. If in doubt, ask your supervisor.